Comunidade Angolana na Baviera e.V
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Angola history in the Middle Ages
Between 7 Century and 9 Century could Bantu ethnic groups in
the territory of present-day Angola resign.
In the 14th Century, in the north of Angola, the Kongo Kingdom
(see detail there), with its capital, Mbanza Congo, in the 15th
Century also founded the Kingdom of Ndongo.
Queen Nzinga in peace talks with Portuguese envoy 1657
In 1483 landed the Portuguese navigator Diogo Cão as the first
Europeans in the region, which in the following years to the
establishment of commercial stations at the mouth of the Congo
and along the Atlantic coast. The main purpose of these
establishments was the slave trade with Brazil, which is only
with the prohibition of the slave trade 1869 changed.
1576, the modern capital of Luanda. Angola will officially be a
Portuguese colony, but already 1580 fell Portugal itself to Spain
(until 1640). A (further) a brief interruption of Portuguese rule
over Angola occurred between 1641 and 1648. During this time,
the Netherlands controlled the country. To mythical figure in the
struggle against the colonialists was Queen Nzinga of Matamba
After 1885 Portugal claims to the opposite Belgian Congo (Zaire)
on the appeal of Germany had failed, Lisbon 1890 also had
British pressures and on the connection of Angola and
Mocambiques to a closed South African colonial empire
abandon. Instead, it adopted in the Portuguese colonies of the
British capital considerable influence.
Negotiations on a britisch-deutsches alliance led but already
1898 on the so-called Angola Contract: In the event that
Portugal need money, Germany and Britain agreed a common
bond, for which the Portuguese colonies were intended as a
pledge. In the case of the expected insolvency of Portugal
should be central Angola (Inner-Angola) to the UK, however,
North, South and West Germany Angola to fall (well Nord-
Mocambique in Germany, Süd-Mocambique to Britain).
Germany renounced for the support of Buren in their fight
against Britain. The agreement was signed on 30 August 1898
closed, but never implemented, and already in 1899 by the
extension of British protection guarantee (Windsor contract) for
Portugal and all his possessions undermined.
Although the British alliance never tried Britain 1912-1914
again, the final break with the empire affords. During a visit to
the British king in Berlin was 1913, the Treaty of 1898 from the
archives and even modified in favor of Germany. Well, it is
already quite Angola. In addition, Germany offered in exchange
for (Angola and) the Belgian Congo two thirds of the British-
German South West Africa (Namibia). In fact, but hesitated to
sign the UK until July 1914, then made the assassination of
Sarajevo and the outbreak of the First World War, its
implementation may be impossible. So Portugal was in
possession of Angola and Mocambiques.
Autonomy and independence struggle
Angola autonomy status changed in 1951 by the conversion to a
Portuguese overseas province. Angolans now had the
opportunity to meet certain criteria, legally as Assimilado to be
recognized. This status granted far-reaching equality with the
Portuguese in Mother Country. The uprising national forces in
the early summer of 1959 began, it was 1964 bloody leveled.
Another 1972 from the Marxist MPLA incur the armed uprising in
1973 was brutally repressed after Portuguese troops, the last of
the rebels overran. As a result of the revolution in Portugal (
"Carnation Revolution" 1974) gained Angola in the following
year on 11 November 1975, with the independence and its first
autonomous, the majority black government. That of the
Organization of African States in 1974 recognized Portuguese
Kongo, another Portuguese colony in South West Africa, whose
independence negotiations with Portugal ran from Angola, and
has since annexed as a province of Cabinda enclave on the
territory counted. The independence aspirations of this region
since decades of military force to suppress.
The first government
The first government was made up of members of the three
major liberation movements (MPLA, UNITA and FNLA). First
Head of State was MPLA-Führer Agostinho Neto. Shortly after
independence broke a civil war between the MPLA, UNITA and
the FNLA, in the foreign powers intervening after the MPLA to
power in the state claimed for itself alone.
A joint attack by UNITA and FNLA to the MPLA in Luanda
entrenched failed at the end of 1975. The FNLA recovered from
this defeat, not more, retired after Zaire, and now actually sank
in the meaninglessness.
civil war in Angola
1- The Marxist MPLA was launched by the Soviet Union and
other socialist states with weapons, and by 50,000 Cuban
troops and a few military advisers from the GDR.
2- The UNITA received from the United States funding and
weapons and were used by South Africa by air and ground
troops, weapons supplies and training programs.
3- The Zaire supported by more regional as politically motivated
FNLA rose after heavy losses from the fighting. South Africa
now again supported UNITA. In 1983, assaulting 5,000 South
African soldiers up to 250 km deep in the south of Angola, in
order to SWAPO bases from South West Africa (now Namibia)
to destroy. They were South African information until mid-
August 1983 418 SWAPO-Kämpfer and 29 South African
South Africa suffered in battles and skirmishes with Cuban
associations sensitive defeats. This aroused South Africa's
willingness to negotiate and to withdraw from Angola. On this
unsuccessful military involvement in Angola is finally, the
weakening of the position of South Africa in Namibia, 1990 in
the state independence was sacked and the apartheid regime
itself. In the year 1991 agreed to the two civil war MPLA and
UNITA parties to a multi-party system. After today, the current
President Jose Eduardo dos Santos (MPLA) by the UN
monitored elections won, war broke out again (until 1993). The
trigger was the conviction of UNITA, it was election fraud.
The 20 November 1994 Lusaka Protocol, a peace agreement
between the government and UNITA provided for the
integration of former UNITA in the government. A national unity
government was 1997 launched, but the bloody battles began
again at the end of 1998 and led to the displacement including
hundreds of thousands of people. The UNITA was split up, a
part Savimbi rejected new attacks.
President Jose Eduardo dos Santos sat on the conflict, the role
of the Democratic instances except force. On 22 In February
2002, Jonas Savimbi, the leader of UNITA, shot, it was a truce
between the two rival parties. The UNITA gave their armed
struggle and took on the role of the leading opposition party.
The resistance of the increasingly isolated internationally UNITA
was already slackens. Angolan government troops were already
1998 strong enough in Zaire (Democratic Republic of Congo),
Congo (of Cabinda) and northern Namibia to intervene and
UNITA had the last supply routes (diamond smuggling) are
Although the political situation in Angola appears to normalize,
President dos Santos had until now no democratization of the
country. Today are among the most serious problems the
impoverishment of Angola and the large number of mine fields,
both as a results of 25 years of civil war. The guerrilla
movements in the north of the country for the independence of
Cabinda exclave fight, are also a major problem for the
stabilization of the region. The peace in Angola, however,
seems to continue to be stable.